Private International and Procedural Law (hereinafter PIP Law) constitutes a field of law which regulates legal problems arising in connection with international relations between Sweden and other countries. The rules concern the three following principal questions: which country has the jurisdiction, whose law shall apply (rules concerning the conflict of laws), and, finally, whether a judgment rendered in one country can be maintained in another country (recognition and execution of judgments). The PIP law is based on Swedish law, but in some cases it has links to public international law., especially when the PIP legal rules are based on international conventions or directly applicable EC regulations. International collaboration in certain legal areas has led to the adoption of conventions governed by uniform PIP law rules, which have become globally binding, whereas in other cases the collaboration has been regionally restricted (for example to the Nordic countries or the EU).

An example of the situation in which the PIP law rules may come into play is in conflicts when the parties to a contract (e.g. a purchase agreement) reside in two different countries, and, consequently, the contractual relationship has links to the legal systems of both countries. A similar situation arises, for example, in cases of environmental damage which transgresses the national boarders, such as, for example, in cases of leakage of oil from a ship which may adversely affect fishing or land owners in many countries. Also in the area of family law the rules of PIP law become important, as when, for example, a person moves to live in another country. Questions concerning applicable law in the case of divorce, division of property, inheritance and testamentary dispositions may become relevant in the new country.